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Education in Saudi Arabia

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جديد Education in Saudi Arabia

مُساهمة  Admin في الأربعاء مايو 02, 2012 6:23 am

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 and occupies about four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea; on the north by Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait; on the east by the Arabian Gulf, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman; and on the south by Yemen.
Saudi Arabia is an Islamic state, in which the Shari'ah (Islamic holy law) serves as both constitution and legal framework. TheWahhabi interpretation of Sunni Islam is the official religion and is strictly enforced.
The discovery of oil in the kingdom and an increase in fuel consumption worldwide spurred on rapid industrial development and urbanization beginning in the early 1970s. Today, more than 70 percent of the population lives in the country's major cities. In addition, the economy is heavily dependent on petroleum exports and employs a high percentage of foreign labor. In 2001, the population reached 22,757,092. The country's overall literacy rate is 62.8 percent (71.5 percent for males and an estimated 50.2 percent for females). Per capita GDP is about US$10,500 (2000 estimate).
Education in Saudi Arabia is segregated by sex and divided into three separately administered systems: general education for boys, education for girls and traditional Islamic education (for boys). The Ministry of Education, established in 1952, presides over general education for boys, and education for girls comes under the jurisdiction of the General Presidency for Girls' Education. Both sexes follow the same curriculum and take the same annual examinations.
Islamic education trains Saudi boys to become members of the Ulema (religious clergy). The religious secondary school curriculum includes the general academic secondary school curriculum but focuses primarily on Islamic and Arabic studies. Religious secondary schools are administered by Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University and the Islamic University of Medinah. These schools, along with religious institutions of higher education, parallel the secular system.
The establishment of secular Western-oriented schools after World War II broke with the traditional Islamic system of education. However, a large part of the new curriculum is devoted to religion. In particular, the memorization of the Quran, interpretation and understanding of the Quran (Tafsir) and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life are stressed. Religion is also studied at the university level alongside other subjects, and is compulsory for all students. There are also two Islamic universities (mentioned above) that focus primarily on religious studies.
The total budget for higher education (universities, women's colleges and the Ministry of Higher Education) was US$2.5 billion in 1985. This amount constitutes 3.6 percent of the total
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